Author Contributions

Taxonomy category

Description of role


Formulation or evolution of overarching research goals and aims


Development or design of methodology; creation of models

Data collection        

Conducting a research and investigation process, specifically performing the experiments or collecting data including conducting interviews and surveys

Sample analysis

Morphological or laboratory assessment of biological samples

Data analysis

Application of statistical, mathematical, or computational techniques to analyse or synthesize study data


Verification, whether as a part of the activity or separate, of the overall replication/reproducibility of results/experiments and other research outputs

Data curation

Management activities to annotate (produce metadata), scrub data and maintain research data (including software code, where it is necessary for interpreting the data itself) for initial use and later re-use

Writing -  the initial draft      

Preparation and creation  of the published work, specifically writing the initial draft (including substantive translation)

Writing - revisions       

Preparation and creation of the published work by those from the original research group, specifically critical review, commentary or revision of writing

Student supervision

Supervision of student and oversight of study

Project leadership

Oversight and leadership responsibility for the research activity planning and execution, including mentorship external to the core team

Project management          

Management and coordination responsibility for the research activity planning and execution

Funding acquisition

Acquisition of the financial support for the project leading to this publication


Please specify

Adapted with permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Nature (Allen LScott JBrand AH Marjorie, Altman Mi. Publishing: Credit where credit is due. Nature 508, 312-313. ©2014